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Caffeine acts through multiple mechanisms by acting on receptors and channels in the cell membrane as well as acting on calcium and cyclic AMP pathways. The principal mode of action is as an agonist at adenosine receptors in the brain as its structure is similar to adenosine. This results increased activity of dopamine. Caffeine also increases release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal nucleus resulting in increased wakefulness and locomotor activity. Caffeine also increases levels of epinephrine and adrenaline as well as levels of serotonin, resulting n positive changes in mood. (more…)
Glycogen, the muscle’s primary fuel source during exercise, is replenished more rapidly when athletes ingest both carbohydrate and caffeine following exhaustive exercise, new research shows. Athletes who ingested caffeine with carbohydrate had 66% more glycogen in their muscles four hours after finishing intense, glycogen-depleting exercise, compared to when they consumed carbohydrate alone, according to the study. (more…)
Proper fluid balance is a requirement for not only athletic performance, but proper functioning of the human body. Dehydration is a condition that can and does affect a great many people and may cause many undesirable effects. One study found that about 15,000 episodes of dehydration and/or heat illness occurred during a two year research period in high school athletes, which led the athlete missing from 1 day to 1 week of practice or competition (Hoffman, et al). This article will attempt to talk about some issues related to dehydration and provide some strategies to avoid and correct dehydration before, during and after athletic competition. (more…)
Breaking up an exercise session, by adding a rest period in between, may boost a workout’s fat-burning efficiency, a team of Japanese and Danish researchers reports.
1. If you want to build muscle, lift heavy (more…)